This is constitutional, legal. We have every right to do what we’re doing—putting education in the hands of the parents.

Zach Adams, Georgia Pastor


Updated July 2009  
SUMMARY for Kansas
General Information Kansas, like many other states does not have specific laws regarding Released Time. However, this does not necessarily prohibit Released Time. In fact, it may allow a wider range of Released Time programs. Since Kansas does not have specific laws regarding Released Time, a Released Time program in Kansas would fall subject to the federal guideposts presented in McCollum v. Board of Education, 333 U.S. 203 (1948), Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306 (1952), and Grand Rapids School District v. Ball, 473 U.S. 373 (1985).

In summary, the above cases present three general requirements for Released Time programs: 1) The state cannot fund Released Time directly or indirectly. This prohibits not only funds themselves but also any support or benefit from anything purchased or anyone compensated by state funds; 2) Released Time programs cannot take place on school premises; and 3) Participation in Released Time programs must be voluntary. There cannot be any coercion, encouragement, or discouragement on the part of any school official. However, these three points are not exclusive. One should conduct thorough research on the latest federal and state case law to see whether your state or federal circuit has its own case law supplementing the requirements in McCollum, Zorach, and Ball.


Department of Education Website Kansas State Department of Education



DETAILS for Kansas






Case Law

Kansas compulsory attendance law requires that all children, ages 7-15 (inclusive), must attend a public school or a private, denominational, or parochial school taught by a competent instructor for a period of time which is substantially equivalent to the period of time a public school is maintained.

KAN. STAT. ANN. § 72-1111 (2012)

There is no expressed released time statute in Kansas.


Lanner v. Wimmer, 662 F.2d 1349 (10th Cir. 1981)

In Lanner, the Court of Appeals held that Released Time programs permitting attendance at religious classes off school premises, do not per se offend the Establishment and Free Exercise Clauses. Lanner v. Wimmer, 662 F.2d 1349, 1357 (10th Cir. 1981). The Court recognized that Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306, which is still good law, declared that public schools may permit the released of students during school hours for attendance at religious classes. Lanner, 662 F.2d at 1358. These religious classes, in addition, must be taught by religious teachers on private property. Lanner, 662 F.2d at 1354.

The Court concluded,

We hold that except for the credit and the attendance-gathering procedure, neither the individual aspects of the Released Time program nor the cumulative effect of the various aspects of the program violate the Establishment Clause. Lanner, 662 F.2d at 1359.

Since the Utah Released Time program was substantially similar to the program in Zorach, the Utah program was declared constitutional. The public school's gathering of religious instruction attendance slips (which had been prepared and provided by the public school) and the granting of state credit for the religious instruction had to be discontinued because it violated the First Amendment Establishment Clause. The Court found that "less-entangling" alternatives could replace the present entangling procedures of Released Time attendance.

Note that in Lanner, credit was disallowed because the state policy required that the religious instruction be non-sectarian, which placed the State in the Constitutionally impermissible position of judging religious content. Credit may be allowed if the determination is based on objective criteria such as teacher qualification.

Though this case deals with released time in Utah it still has precendential weight in federal courts in Kansas.



Op. Atty. Gen. No. 78-339, 1978

Release time programs are at the discretion   of the individual boards of education of the districts. However, if a school   board allows the programs, the programs are deemed non-public schools and,   like any non-public school, can enter a contract with the school district to   utilize the public school buses when they are not in use.